terça-feira, fevereiro 14, 2006

O "Impressionismo": ponto de chegada, ponto de partida

Claude Monet (1840-1926), Boulevard des Capucines, Paris, 1873, óleo sobre tela, 61x80 cm., Museu Pushkin, Moscovo.

"Quando saires para pintar tenta esquecer-te dos objectos que tenhas diante dos olhos (...). Pensa simplesmente: aqui está um pequeno quadrado azul, um rectângulo rosa, um raio amarelo e pinta o que vês, a cor e a forma exactas, até que tenhas a sensação de que contemplas pela primeira vez a cena que tens diante de ti", Monet (L. C. Perry, "Reminiscences of Claude Monet from 1889-1909", American Magazine of Art, XVIII, citado por John Gage, Color y Cultura (...), Madrid, Ediciones Siruela, 2ª ed., 1997, p. 209).

"A arte já não é uma sensação puramente visual que registamos (...). Em vez de 'trabalharmos a partir da visão, procuramos o misterioso centro do pensamento', como dizia Gauguin. (...) A arte, mais do que uma cópia, torna-se na transformação subjectiva da natureza. (...) A reconstrução da arte, que Cézanne começou com materiais do Impressionismo, foi continuada por Gauguin (...)", Maurice Denis (1870-1943), 1909 (citado em Charles Harrison, Paul Wood, Art in Theory 1900-1990, Oxford, Blackwell, New Edition, 2003, pp. 48-49).

James McNeill Whistler (1834–1903), Nocturne in Black and Gold: The Falling Rocket, 1875, óleo sobre madeira, 60.3 x 46.6 cm, Detroit Institute of Arts (o quadro esteve na origem de uma famosa polémica que passou pelos tribunais).

Sobre a utilização do legado do "Pós-Impressionismo", das últimas décadas do século XIX, pela arte do início do século XX, legado muito claro nos "fauves" presentemente em exposição no Museu do Chiado (pelo centenário da exposição de 1905), pode consultar-se, "online", o primeiro capítulo de A Critical History of 20th-Century Art, de Donald Kuspit, que está em publicação na alemã Artnet.

2 comentários:

Somerset Maugham disse...

Philip went out and wondered what he should do with himself till dinner. He was eager to do something characteristic. Absinthe! of course it was indicated, and so, sauntering towards the station, he seated himself outside a cafe and ordered it. He drank with nausea and satisfaction. He found the taste disgusting, but the moral effect magnificent; he felt every inch an art-student; and since he drank on an empty stomach his spirits presently grew very high. He watched the crowds, and felt all men were his brothers. He was happy. When he reached Gravier's the table at which Clutton sat was full, but as soon as he saw Philip limping along he called out to him. They made room. The dinner was frugal, a plate of soup, a dish of meat, fruit, cheese, and half a bottle of wine; but Philip paid no attention to what he ate. He took note of the men at the table. Flanagan was there again: he was an American, a short, snub-nosed youth with a jolly face and a laughing mouth. He wore a Norfolk jacket of bold pattern, a blue stock round his neck, and a tweed cap of fantastic shape. At that time impressionism reigned in the Latin Quarter, but its victory over the older schools was still recent; and Carolus-Duran, Bouguereau, and their like were set up against Manet, Monet, and Degas. To appreciate these was still a sign of grace. Whistler was an influence strong with the English and his compatriots, and the discerning collected Japanese prints. The old masters were tested by new standards. The esteem in which Raphael had been for centuries held was a matter of derision to wise young men. They offered to give all his works for Velasquez' head of Philip IV in the National Gallery. Philip found that a discussion on art was raging. Lawson, whom he had met at luncheon, sat opposite to him. He was a thin youth with a freckled face and red hair. He had very bright green eyes. As Philip sat down he fixed them on him and remarked suddenly:

"Raphael was only tolerable when he painted other people's pictures. When he painted Peruginos or Pinturichios he was charming; when he painted Raphaels he was," with a scornful shrug, "Raphael."

Lawson spoke so aggressively that Philip was taken aback, but he was not obliged to answer because Flanagan broke in impatiently.

Eça de Queiróz disse...

"Fumando um pensativo cigarro", ou "Todos os dias de jejum come um peixe austero"